Engineering

best waterjet cutting process

How Does the Water Jet Cutting Process Work?

The working principle behind the water jet cutting process is very simple to understand. It takes inspiration from nature itself in how a waterfall could slowly over a long period of time cut through a hard rock below it, giving it form and shape. Water jet cutting machine manufacturers replicated this in their product offerings giving us a no less than state of the art material cutting tool like no other.

There is almost no limit to the applications of water jet cutting and the materials it can handle and cut. Since this material cutting method makes use of water jet technology, we qualify it as a highly efficient cold cutting process. The cutting power of high pressure water can be further intensified with the addition of abrasive materials, allowing it to cut an array of hard and tough materials in half the time.

Silky smooth and minimal kerfs, not to mention the non-workable cutting edges are a few of the reasons why the water jet cutting process has become the method of choice in many industries today.

waterjet cutter technology

Inspiration Behind Water Jet Cutting

As mentioned earlier, water-jet was inspired from nature, a simple functional principle. A fine, high-pressure jet of water is made to move at amazing warp speed and made to hit a particular surface of a workpiece. The action will induce material removal, allowing it to take the shape of your intended design and form.

In order to generate a jet of high pressure water, the system’s high-pressure pump will need to bring the water to certain pressure, of up to several thousand bar. Eventually, it will be directed to the cutting head.

With respect to the material that you want to cut, most especially for hard and extremely tough ones, you can combine your water with abrasive materials. As described above this measure will expedite your water jet cutting process and will cut your cutting time in half. Water will emerge from a jet nozzle opening with a diameter of 0.1 to 0.5 millimeter. The pressure of the water as well as the nozzle opening will determine the power or the intensity of the blasting capacity.

The water jet will separate the particles of the material near the surface inducing a stress-free and seamless cutting process without having to worry about the introduction of heat ingression into the material. With respect to the material’s level of thickness and the nature of the water jet, varying levels cutting depths and speeds can be achieved.

Water-Jet Cutting Advantages

  • Flexible cutting process
  • Cuts a wide range of substances and materials
  • High level of cutting precision
  • Minimal kerfs 
  • Smooth cut edges
  • No need to rework the cut edges
  • No material heat load
  • Environment-friendly method of cutting 
  • Complete absence of slag waste
  • Cutting water can be recycled

High Impacting Factors to the Quality of Cut of Water Jet Machine

There are some of the parameters that are likely to create a significant impact to waterjet cutter performance and its cutting quality. These influencing factors would include the following:

  • Nozzle opening diameter
  • Nozzle distance/proximity to the material surface
  • Pump pressure
  • Cutting head feed speed
  • Water jet machines generated cutting pressure
phone with wifi

Learning About WiFi Antennas

Amateur radio operators used to say that if you require a bigger, more powerful signal, you need to put up some more metal components to your antenna, and have it held higher. The same can be said to be true for WiFi antennas. It is not an exception.

The strength and dependability of WiFi communications will largely depend on radio-frequency energy. They can be efficiently transmitted and they can be received as well over antennas. The use of a better quality of antenna will provide users with better coverage. Choosing the right kind of antenna should be easy and seamless, that is if you know and understand the fundamentals.

Antennas in General

Generally speaking, antennas are mechanical devices that are designed to radiate radio waves and carry out this function when you supply them with electric power. Sometimes another device can be used for this purpose, converting radio waves so they become electric power.

There are occasions that antennas are purposefully designed to work as antennas, much like the ones we have in a wireless router. We can also use them for some other purposes, those wires you see on your earbuds. They incidentally work like an antenna.

wifi antennas

We classify WiFi antennas as directional, always. This signifies that they can either receive or transmit radio waves in particular directions but may not be as efficient in other directions. Antenna systems that are not structured to work as directional are referred to as “omnidirectional” or “nondirectional”. This is regardless if we can’t qualify them as perfectly nondirectional.

WiFi Frequencies

At least 5 different bands have been reserved for the exclusive use of Wi-Fi transmissions,  3.6GHz, 5GHz, 2.4GHz, 5.9GHz, and 4.9GHz. How these bands are utilized will vary, depending upon the country where they are applied. 2.4GHz band is considered as the most widely used, even the majority of the general principles can be substantially applied to all bands.

The 2.4 GHz band can extend and this can go approximately from 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz. This makes the approximate center band at 2.45 GHz. This frequency is used in the calculations below.

Summing up the formula we have above:

wavelength in meters = 300 / MHz frequency

We will convert this to the following:

Wavelength in millimeters =  300 / GHz frequency

Thus, this computation above is making the 2.45 GHz wavelength signal into 122.45 mm. A 2.45 GHz dipole is 61.22 mm end to end. As for these two halves, each will be 30.61 mm. If you are most familiar working in inches, it would be 2.41” for a dipole of 2.45 GHz from end to end.

Each of those two halves is going to be 1.205”.

Regardless of the units, you want to utilize, the elements in the 2.4 GHz band are quite small. This goes even much smaller with the other 4 bands.

Antenna Polarization

Polarization refers to the orientation of the antenna with regard to the surface of the earth. The ones that are structured for their radio waves and are oriented in such a way that they are parallel to the surface of the earth are classified as “horizontal”. As for the antennas that are created for their radio waves are intentionally oriented at a right angle with respect to the surface of the earth are classified as “vertical”.

Dipole WiFi antennas can be taken advantage of either in polarization and can be done by making relevant changes to its position. The element of a dipole is parallel to the surface of the earth. For this reason, the antenna is polarized horizontally. Dipole reorientation will render its element tips to point up and down, which is what makes it polarized vertically.